Ligament-Cartilage Ankle Joint Model

Video of ligament-cartilage ankle joint model simulation. The bones are modelled as rigid bodies that cannot be penetrated by other objects. The ligaments are modelled as spring reinforced, finite element meshes that are fixed to the bones at their insertion sites. The cartilage is modelled as a rigid body with elastic foundation penetration constraints. All bones except for the talus are driven by biplanar videoradiography data and the talus motion is simulated using the tension force from the ligaments (red arrows) and the contact force from the cartilage (pressure map on talus cartilage). The white talus represents the talus simulated in the model while the green talus represents the talus measured with biplanar videoradiography. The simulation was performed using ArtiSynth, an open-source multibody and finite element simulation toolkit, and visualized in WristVizualizer.