Ligament Elongation Simulation

Video of ligament elongation simulation. The bones are modelled as rigid bodies that cannot be penetrated by other objects. The ligaments are modelled as spring reinforced, finite element meshes that are fixed to the bones at their insertion sites. The bones are driven by biplanar videoradiography data and the ligament elongation is measured. The simulation was performed using ArtiSynth, an open-source multibody and finite element simulation toolkit, and visualized in WristVizualizer.